Suppliers or distributors of electricity, gas and fuels are required to undertake energy efficiency measures in the energy delivered to the end user according to a binding target.
White certificates are issued whenever an amount of energy is saved and when the proper documentation is files to the administration, once issued it is a tradable asset. Energy producers use them to meet their energy savings targets, whether these are obtained inside their facilities or purchased on a secondary market. A wide range of methodologies are eligible to obtain White Certificates including building renovation, industrial processes optimization, transportation.
When an energy provider does not meet the energy savings targets, a penalty is imposed by the administration.
In Europe, several countries have implemented this system under various names:
- France: Certificats d’Économie d’Énergie (CEE)
- Poland: Biale Certyfikaty
- Italy: Titoli di Efficienza Energetica